In simple terms an Analog Phone Line is a voice circuit built on standard copper wire that runs from your local phone company to your business location. Analogue phone lines convert your audio (your voice) into electronic pulses, the phone company using switching equipment connects these electronic pulses to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), sometimes referred to as the local loop. Your business subscribes to a phone number (or multiple phone numbers) and the phone company can connect calls to and from your business.
A broadband connection refers to a high-speed internet connection, this type of connect is faster than a dial-up connection and there are a number of ways to connect - Fixed Broadband, Wireless Broadband, Mobile Broadband and Satellite Broadband.
The Cloud refers to services delivered over the internet. Your business can access cloud services from virtually anywhere, whether it be a desktop, PC, laptop, tablet, smartphone, or other device with an Internet connection. Here is a link to an article that provides more info - What is the Cloud? Is it right for my Business?
A Digital Telephone System converts analog (voice) signals to digital (a data format that uses two physical levels to transmit information corresponding to 0s and 1s). IP or VOIP Phone Systems are also Digital Phone Systems but rather than transmitting signals via traditional telephone lines, signals are transmitted via a data connection (internet).
Ethernet is used for linking cables to each other. It is the primary data cabling used in Local Area Networks (LAN). Standard Ethernet connections can transmit data up to 100 mbps, while "Gigabit" Ethernet can achieve peak transfer rates of 1000 mbps.
Networks communicating over Ethernet divide data streams into shorter pieces called frames, these frames contain source and destination addresses and error-checking data so that damaged data can be detected and re-transmitted.
An Ethernet port looks similar to a phone port, only slightly wider and is used to connect your computer to another computer, a local network, or an external DSL or cable modem.
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IP Phone uses VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) technology for placing and transmitting telephone calls over the internet (IP Network) this is in place of traditional PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) lines.
VoIP is a protocol or a subset of IP Phone - in simple terms VoIP refers to the technology for taking a voice "call" and sending over a data network, IP Phone refers to the device on your desk and system requirements used to make a VoIP call.
IP is a way of digitizing your phone system, utilizing the Internet and integrating hardware and applications attached to your phone system. The main aim of IP Telephony is to increase productivity, and is a technology that is suited to progressive business environments.
NAT allows an Internet Protocol (IP) network to maintain private IP addresses separately from your public IP addresses. NAT is a popular technology for when you are sharing an internet connection
PABX (Private automatic branch exchange) performs all the switching necessary for making internal calls between extensions and provides a connection between extensions and external phone lines.
Presence Information is a status indicator that conveys ability and willingness of a potential communication partner—for example a user—to communicate. A user's client provides presence information (presence state) via a network connection to a presence service, which is stored in what constitutes their personal availability record (called a presentity) and can be made available for distribution to other users (called watchers) to convey his availability for communication. Presence information has wide application in many communication services and is one of the innovations driving the popularity of instant messaging or recent implementations of voice over IP clients.
Private IP networks can improve your businesses network security, requiring a private IP addresses, devices on this network cannot connect directly to the Internet, the same goes for computers outside of your Private IP network. Instead, access to your devices must be completed by a router or similar device that supports Network Address Translation (NAT) - this hides your private IP numbers but can selectively transfer messages to these devices, providing a layer of security to your local network.
On the Internet as with Mobile networks, QoS (Quality of Service) refers to the quality of transmission rates, error rates, and other characteristics which can be measured. improved, and, to some extent, guaranteed in advance.
Mobile network carriers (such as Telstra) have had to adapt to the evolving traffic, what was traditionally voice-only is now dominated by video and data.
QoS for network carriers is about providing a satisfactory end-user experience, the Quality of Service can be improved with infrastructure investment along with traffic shaping techniques such as packet prioritization, application classification and queuing at congestion points.
Unified Communications (UC) is the integration of real-time communication services. This includes instant messaging (chat), presence information, voice (including IP telephony), video conferencing, desktop sharing, data sharing, call control and speech recognition with non-real-time communication services such as unified messaging (integrated voicemail, e-mail, SMS and fax). UC is not necessarily a single product, but a set of products that provides a consistent unified user-interface and user-experience across multiple devices and media-types
VOIP stands for Voice Over Internet Protocol, or in more common terms your phone service over the Internet. VOIP is commonly used thanks to services such as Skype, Viber and even FaceTime for Apple users and becoming more widely accepted by small and medium businesses. Here is a helpful article that provides more info - VoIP Phone System – Should Your Business Switch?